Mindfulness Integrate Relapse Prevention (MiRP) Coming Soon, based on quantity based research which has done by Nuwan Fonseka PsyD and include several multi-dimensional relapse prevention techniques.
Intimate Partner Violence and LGBT discuss
LGBTQ relationship issues serve more to utilize to integrate the issue of same-sex intimate partner violence into community discourse about relationships and family life, and provide insight into the particular information of life for LGBTQ people. I think if we pathologize the level of domestic violence of lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender/queer (LGBTQ) people as not just facing issues similar to those of straight people but even worse in some cases.
According to Kristin, surviving is a complex process; the service that professionals provide and the appropriate language that we use, such as survivor is a person who experiences the power and pattern of control from another person, is very important. Survivors do lots of complicated things than perpetrator (Tucker, 2010) but I found some cases where perpetrators do more than victims.
The difference between the advocacy model language and criminal legal system language, I found as a clinician that the advocacy model language is very suitable for institutions. The anti-violence movement understands and cares deeply about what happens to survivors (Tucker, 2010) that is a very common situation with IPV, even same-sex intimate partners.
“The word shows nothing of respect, not only for the feminist, but for ourselves” (Miles 2013) Intimate Partner Violence is different within a South Asian community, the majority Muslim countries, Hindu culture, Christian culture and Buddhist culture, IPV has different pictures depending on the culture. I even think migrating to a new country, IPV stays within the family system, family attachment, and the idea of economical contribution, role modulating and other family dynamics won’t change. Some women develop power within their family system by involving new environments, activities such as social groups, education, the freedom of working (carrier), which creates good personality that can help women against to IPV.
Community-based organizations, such as Sakhi for South Asian Women, helps immigrant women be protected from IPV that is long -term running in the family system.
As was discussed in this video, economic abuse, if not financial abuse, is very common, that they don’t think of as an IPV. Providing psychoeducational support to understand the picture of abuse, such as fanatical abuse, such as controlling the income and outflow of money from all sources, refusing to account for spending of family money, controlling the bank accounts and credit card, not allowing her to have her own money or income, and controlling the freedom to spend it as she sees fit, is very important in the immigrant community.
SAKHI (2011) IPV and South Asian women. [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=64ldR4cN1Z4
Tucker. K, Slavin. T, Stapel. S (2010) “Understanding and Addressing LGBT Domestic Violence” "[Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bkFzj82Fwc0 Williams Institute at UCLA School of Law
Intimate Partner Violence
"Cobras" and for "Pitbulls."
Cobras & Pitbulls is a famous concept within domestic violence. Men are categorized as Cobras who have expressed different qualities such as severe antisocial, criminal-like traits, and were also highly sadistic and some narcissistic personality qualities. The amount of emotional dependency on Cobra is less, and anger and aggressiveness were always a part of his personality. They are more likely to be angry and threaten to use a weapon than other batters.
The Cobra, which is men intimidated and controlled by their partners and leads their spouse to experience some level of fear, less anger, with a particular increase in sadness. According to Jacobson and Gottman, two years later, none of the Cobra males had become divorced or separated from their battered wives. The wives are often the ones who continue to fight for the relationship to continue (Jacobson. &, Gottman. 2007). Pitbulls is the other character for the male partner that lives with extreme jealousy, insecurities and they are dependent upon their spouses (high temper such as cobra).
According to Jacobson and Gottman’s study, they found that they were not intimidated and often fought just as aggressively as their husbands (Jacobson. &, Gottman. 2007). When other men give their partners attention, they and can become paranoid believing their “wives are having affairs based on clues that most of us would find ridiculous” (Jacobson. &, Gottman. 2007). Like a Cobra man, a Pitbull man will not move another relationship, they continue their violence to their spouse long after the relationship has ended, because they have become terrified of their dependency within their relationship. According to my experience with intervention and a few first therapy sessions with Cobra and Pitbulls within couples and individuals therapy I have found several challenges.
Working with the partner who has been witness to relationships with Cobra and Pitbulls type of male partners, I have helped them to identify how they were abused within physical, emotional, verbal, sexual and economic framework. Intervention defines that the domestic abuse partner has physical abuse that includes (but is not limited to) hitting, punching, physical restraint, aggravated assault, and forcing someone to take drugs.
Problem-centered systems therapy with a client who presents with the "Cobra" style of IPV:
The Cobras that I have worked with more detached, and always trying to control their spouses by instilling fear within the relationship. Some of them tend to be antagonistic and sometimes display antisocial behaviors. Some of them have a criminal history and are involved with substances, and as a clinician I am very mindful of this in therapy sessions. Lots of cobras have experienced several childhood related attachment and trauma issues; I offer short-term psychoanalytic working within psychodynamic format to deal with their childhoods or adolescent behavioral/emotional issues.
Using MMFF (McMaster Model of Family Functioning) within therapy session can help to identify the major core areas, such as problem, solving, Communication, individual roles, affective responsiveness, affective involvement, behavioral control (Ryan, Nathan, & Keitner 2012) that impact on a relationship.
Problem-centered systems therapy with a client who presents with the "pitbull" style of IPV:
The Pit-bulls that I worked with were much more different than Cobras, more nervous and anxious, jealous and demanding, but they are very dependent on their partners (most of my Pit-bull clients are unemployed); even they depend on their spouses and are demanding. Pit-bulls are very cooperative in their session, very supportive to their therapist
The attachment is very insecure, and self-esteem is poor and to cope with rejection. Most Pit-bulls have suffered Reactive Attachment Disorder in their childhood, and these attachment issues are unresolved and it interferes with their relationship. Short term attachment work and brief psychoanalytic psychotherapy can help them resolve their attachment issues. Intimacy issues are one of the common conflicts of their relationship. An over demanding personality that they practice is very much connected with intimacy issues, which are connected to the level of anxiety, inferiority complex, lack of self-esteem. Providing one-on-one supports to deal with those issues would be beneficial for them.
Dr. David Wexler with 25 years of experience in the field of domestic violence, and the author of very recognized books book such as STOP Domestic Violence: Innovative Skills, Techniques, Options, and Plans for Better Relationships and When Good Men Behave Badly: Change Your Behaviour, Change Your Relationship. Wexler’s The Big Five Research Trends in DV is very important for clinicians who are working with domestic violence intervention and prevention, counselling and psychotherapy work with couples and families. The video has clearly described that the one DV format does not fit all, and different interventions are necessary for different types of intimate partner violence. Intimate Partner Terrorism that includes wife-beating, domestic violence, spouse abuse and battering.
According to Dr. Wexler, the primary abuser is almost always male. Violence is more frequent and severe/less likely to stop, and the abuser coercively controls the partner (Wexler 2012). Coercive control is very common in domestic violence, and the abuser uses nonphysical tactics with isolation, economic control, controlling her activities and decisions maintaining control over his partner.
As a clinician, it is very important to have an idea of Women’s Motivations for Violence, because when women are involved in violence, the traditional DV approaches are not necessary to use. According to Dr. Wexler, only 5% of aggressive wives attributed their aggression to self-defence, while 50% attributed it to their anger or wish to coerce. DV would be self -defense/protection/fear, or express feelings for women. Some women’s domestic violence behaviours are retaliation for previous harm or emotional abuse, getting partner to “shut up” or engage the attention—emotionally (Wexler 2012).
Jacobson. N, &, Gottman. J (2007) When Men Batter Women Paperback: Simon & Schuster Publisher
Hamel, J. (Ed.). (2008). Intimate partner and family abuse: A casebook of gender inclusive therapy. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.
Ryan C. E, Nathan B, & Keitner. G.I (2012) Evaluating and Treating Families: The McMaster Approach, Routledge Publisher
Wexler. D.B (2012, Jun 28). "The Big Five Research Trends in Domestic Violence that Everyone needs to Know"[Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tOkcZz0Kc3M
Childhood Psychological Trauma how influence Intimate Partner Violence of Aboriginal Males.’
(Please contact email@example.com for full paper)
Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) behaviors contain physical, sexual, emotional, isolation, monitoring and restricting freedom, verbal, economic and financial harm by a current intimate partner or spouse. Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is physical, sexual or psychological harm by a current or former intimate partner or spouse; it includes a pattern of coercive or manipulative behaviours perpetrated by one intimate partner against the other, in order to gain or maintain control in the relationship (Carpenter & Stacks 2009). Based upon my experience with the family system therapy, children’s experience with domestic abuse, traumatic violent experiences, and neglect, can be factors in the lives of male perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence. Working with male perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence, involved AODG and short and long-term trauma history; clinical interviews based on childhood and adolescent period that identifies very important data for how childhood trauma and Intimate Partner Violence connect within Aboriginals.
An Aboriginal teenager, who experienced school problems such as discipline, academic and bullying issues, substance abuse, and arrests for crimes such as violent, vandalism property, and drugs, has commonly shown traumatic experiences in childhood, such as emotional or psychological trauma, physical and sexual abuse. The Duluth Model has become very approachable and successful within in province of Manitoba for intimate partner violence perpetrators. The Duluth Model (Gondolf, 2007) and intervention have been recognized internationally as the domestic violence tool for helping communities eliminate violence in the lives of women and children (DAIP 2011).
A gender-based cognitive-behavioural model is intended to increase behaviour responsibility and teach gender sensitivity is a standardized approach to men who have been arrested for IPV (Watt & Scrandis 2013). The majority of IPV in Aboriginal communities is male dominance and paternalism, losing the respect for women and helping males conceptualize the value of female’s values would change the view of male perpetrator’s mind. Psychodynamic work is one of the important tools in IPV therapy sessions. Using psychoanalysis work within psychodynamic frame countertransference would be excellent tools to work with perpetrators and victims. Integrating countertransference with other therapeutic techniques, such as CBT or mindfulness, the therapist can achieve his/her goals with perpetrator.
Research shows significant dysfunction and dissatisfaction in the family and intimate relationships of problem gamblers (Hodgins et al., 2007). Relationship dysfunction, in turn, is associated with a greater number of emotional consequences and greater gambling problem severity (Hodgins et al., 2007).
The social, psychological and substance-related an issue on native communities has created a pattern of taken having Aboriginal children away from their parents due to court orders, Indian residential school act and relocation. Children who have been taken from their parents in the short term, and long-term have spent time at the foster parents care or residential school (until the last residential school has closed down in 1987), and experienced emotional and psychological trauma, and the majority of foster care children were exposed to caregivers IPV. Children who grew up on homes on the reserves with their parents and extended family members may have been witness to community violence, such as gang violence, other than domestic violence in a dysfunctional psychosocial environment. Berkowitz, children’s study identified that children raised in homes where parents engage in IPV are at a higher risk of maltreatment either as intended targets of violence or as accidental victims (Berkowitz, 2005).
The outcome of the clients direct assessment (comprehensive) results from perpetrators or victims; the majority of aboriginal IPV perpetrators or victims have experienced different levels of exposure to intimate partner violence with their both their parents or just one, between the ages of 5 and 15. Aboriginal male perpetrators who have been affected by his childhood IPV and getting support from clinicians commonly identified that they were never ready to believe that certain affected issues had affected his current family system. Psycho-educational sessions such as video, presentation, and printed materials made it more challenging for them to get their mind set to believe how their childhood expose experience had effects on their current relationship.
As a clinician practicing with Aboriginal males, it critical and challenging to understand these factors and behaviours to develop better treatment plans to decrease the IPV risk. The variable of beliefs, culture and the anger level of perpetrator with his lack of respect on spirituality or transpersonal practice makes treatment strategies more challenging. For example, mindfulness-based techniques and transpersonal practices are a very important part of the IPV perpetrator group therapy program. The majority of perpetrators are refusing to attend these activities due to their bad childhood experience after providing psycho-educational explanation, some of them have agreed to attend, but some of them wouldn’t agree.Majority of IPV male perpetrators are suffering theses abandonment memories in their middle age of life. Alcoholism or substance abuse has become most common emotional abandonment factor within an Aboriginal sociality. Most Aboriginal males described as normal behaviours of having been with parents engaged in frequent intimate partner violence behaviours such as spitting, pushing, grabbing, pulling hair, beating with an object, touching and grabbing in sexual or abused ways, verbally fighting, refusing to accept “no” as an answer, name calling, embarrassing in public or friends and restricting of money and finances, all in front of the children. In Watt, & Scrandis, (2013) research, all of the IPV male perpetrator participants had described their family as “normal,” but later admitted to frequent parental conflict.Every aboriginal IPV perpetrators reported common physical punishment, having been spanked or beaten with an object like stick between the ages of 6 - 15 and they were labelled as misbehaved as a child. School and mental health issues are linked because male perpetrators in their childhood frequently stated their mental health issues coincided with the onset of school problems Watt, & Scrandis, (2013).
Skipping class, dropping out of school, being involved in vandalism at the school, making behavioural complaints with school teachers and lack of school performance, are commonly reported from male aboriginal perpetrator. Early substance abuse was reported, especially marijuana, alcohol and cocaine were commonly involved with peer pressure or bullying, and some of them have experienced Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Attention Deficit Disorder and learning disabilities.
Aboriginal Women and Domestic Violence - Manitoba. AWDV MB (n.d.). (2014) Retrieved from http://www.gov.mb.ca/fs/fvpp/print,aboriginal.html
Berkowitz, C. D. (2005). Recognizing and responding to domestic violence. Pediatric Annals, 34, 395-401.
Bowlby, J. (1980). Attachment and loss: Vol. 3. Loss, sadness, and depression. New York: Basic Books.
Carpenter. G & Stacks. A, (2009) Developmental effects of exposure to Intimate Partner Violence in early childhood: Children and Youth Services Review 31, 831–839
The Duluth Model - Domestic Abuse Intervention Programs - DAIP. 2011 (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.theduluthmodel.org/index.htm
Dutton, D. G., Corvo, K. N., & Hamel, J. (2009). The gender paradigm in domestic violence research and practice. Part II: The information website of the American Bar Association. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 14, 30-38.
Gondolf, E. W. (2007). How batterer program participants avoid reassault. Violence Against Women, 6, 1204-1222.
Gannon, M. & Mihorean, K. (2004) General Social Survey - Victimization (GSS), Criminal Victimization in Canada, Vol. 25, no. 7
Hodgins, DC, Toneatto, T, Makarchuk, K (2007). Minimal treatment approaches for concerned significant others of problem gamblers: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Gambling Studies, 23(2), 215–230.
Johnson, H. (2006) Measuring Violence Against Women: Statistical Trends 2006, Statistics Canada.
Mitchell, I., & Beech, A. (2011). Towards a neurobiological model of offending. Clinical Psychology Review, 31, 872-882.
Our Voices | First Nations, Métis, Inuit, GBA Toolkit. (n.d.). FNMI (2014) Retrieved from http://www.aboriginalgba.ca/category.aspx?catid=122&rt=2
Statistics Canada (2011) National Household Survey. Aboriginal Peoples in Canada: First Nations People, Metis and Inuit, Statistics Canada Report, CA
Teicher, M. H. (2007). Childhood abuse, brain development and impulsivity. Retrieved from http://www.mclean.harvard.edu/pdf/research/clinicalunit/dbrp/mteichertalks/MASOC_ MAT SA_meeting.pdf
Worley, K. O., Walsh, S., & Lewis, K. (2004). An examination of parenting experiences in male perpetrators of domestic violence: A qualitative study. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 77, 35-54.
Van der Kolk, B. (2003). The neurobiology of childhood trauma and abuse. Child and
Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics, 12, 293-317.
Watt, E. M & Scrandis, D. M (2013) Traumatic Childhood Exposures in the Lives of Male Perpetrators of Female Intimate Partner Violence, Journal of Interpersonal Violence 28(14) 2813–2830
Group therapy is one of the most effective therapeutic practiced methods in psychology that help people to improve self-awareness and overcome their issues not with in an area of concurrent addiction and mental health problems. Siddhartha Gautama (Lord Buddha) in his career used group therapy in many incidents, for example in one incident, Buddha had offered advice to a group of princes named “Baddavaggiya” who were in search of a woman who had committed a lot of sins.
Yalom (2005) states that group process consists of eleven Therapeutic Factors; Instillation of hope, Universality, Imparting information, Altruism, The corrective recapitulation of the primary family group, Development of socializing techniques, Imitative behavior, Interpersonal learning, Group cohesiveness, Catharsis and Existential factors (Yalom 2005 p 9).
Different types of tensions have always occurred in the group process at different levels and in different ways. It is very important that the therapist have a clear picture of this tension level with its different degrees. In some cases, group tension can be fueling and can be hidden in the group and interaction in silence maybe going on for a while.
Group tension can also occur when conflict between greed and selflessness in helping others and choices between the desire to see others improve and the fear of being left behind. When group tension appears, there can be choices between the desire to immerse oneself in the comforting waters of the group and the fear of losing one’s precious individuality.
The primary task of the patient is based on his or her goals that achieve to attend group process and the level of stress, the level of relationship that they are comfortable with both the participant and comfort zone. However the view of the primary task changes noticeably as one progresses in therapy, I found from my group therapy experience that sometimes patients and therapists attend group therapy with very different goals and views of the primary task.
Some patients wished that through group process they would become so well that they would be even more superior to their adversaries by ”Out mental-healthing” them; but another patient planned to learn how to manipulate other participants even more effectively.
When group process running for a few weeks, a majority of patients initially has some clear conception of a primary task most of the time and relief from pain. The patients original goals may be unconscious or, even if conscious, sometimes are well hidden from other participants; they do not form part of the patient initial contract (Yalom 2005).
Resistance is one of the major struggles within the context of the group process that can occur at any stage of the group process, which can impede the group process and can be projected in a different way. Even our coping mechanism is different with different situations and in some cases patients rebuild their interpersonal world in the social microcosm of the group process.
Group therapy is different than individual therapy in the sense that it offers an abundance of secondary gratification because the therapeutic work in a group is derailed because patients may find they are unwilling to relinquish gratification. When patients engaging in their attitudes, habitual patterns or behavior are examined by the other patient or the group, the social microcosm concept occur within the group process.
(More info Fonseka 2012)
Fonseka. N (2012) Dealing with resistance in group therapy, doctoral research paper, CA
Yalom, D. I. 2005. “Theory and Practice of Group Psychotherapy”. Basic Books (Harper/Collins) New York, USA
Upananda, Rev. R. 2010 “Bauddha Mano Cikittsa Partikara” (Buddhist psychotherapy): S. Godage, Colombo, SL
Schachter. R, 2009. (Group therapy presentation note), GHC, Toronto